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Tuesday, February 22, 2011

ASBESTOS IN BUILDING CAUSES MESOTHELIOMA CANCER

Mesothelioma, or malignant mesothelioma, is a rare form of cancer caused by exposure to asbestos in buildings. Malignant Mesothelioma develops from the mesothelium, the protective lining that covers many of the body's internal organs. Mostly it is affected in outer lining of lungs, called pleura . Mesothelioma is rarely seen in the lining of the abdominal cavity called peritoneum, and also in the pericardium of the heart. The common symptoms of mesothelioma include shortness of breath due to fluid between the lung and the chest wall or chest wall, pain, weight loss, Fatigue or anemia, Wheezing, hoarseness, or cough and Blood in the sputum (fluid) coughed up (hemoptysis) etc.

Who is on risk of Mesothelioma Cancer?

ASBESTOS CANCER

Working  with and exposure of asbestos is the major risk factor for mesothelioma. Mesothelioma have seen more on people who faced instances of inhaled asbestos and glass particles, or they have been exposed to asbestos dust and fiber in other ways.

There are studies proved that washing the clothes of a family member who worked with asbestos or glass can put a person at risk for developing mesothelioma. Several studies proved that Mesothelioma has also been associated with irradiation, intrapleural thorium dioxide, and inhalation of other fibrous silicates, such as erionite.

Many building materials used in both public and domestic premises contain asbestos. This is another risk factor for mesothelioma. People who are living in newly constructed houses with asbestos, are more likely to get mesothelioma due to the exposure of dust of asbestos through their food and water. The presence of asbestos fibers in water supplies and food products posing high risk of mesothelioma cancer, especially to children.

In many Asian countries, asbestos has been widely used in many industrial products, including cement, brake linings, gaskets, roof shingles, flooring products, textiles, and insulation. In manufacturing units, the workers are heavily prone to asbestos dust. Therefore the family members and others living with asbestos workers have an increased risk of developing mesothelioma cancer.

Treatment

Other than some newer chemotherapies and multimodality treatments, there is no major developments in this section. If any of our readers can share some good news, please comment here to share with readers.

References:

  • Ashrafian H, Athanasiou T, Yap J, DeSouza AC. Two-chamber intracardiac mesothelioma. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 2005 Jun;
  • Eastbourne Today. "Woman's death from asbestos". Retrieved 2008-10-28.
  • Alastair J Moore, Robert J Parker, John Wiggins (2008). "Malignant mesothelioma". Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 3
  • Muscat JE, Wynder EL (May 1991). "Cigarette smoking, asbestos exposure, and malignant mesothelioma".
  • EBSCO database verified by URAC; accessed from Mount Sinai Hospital, New York
  • Roggli VL, Sharma A, Butnor KJ, Sporn T, Vollmer RT (2002). "Malignant mesothelioma and occupational exposure to asbestos: a clinicopathological correlation of 1445 cases".
  • "Mesothelioma risks and causes : Cancer Research UK : CancerHelp UK". Cancerhelp.org.uk. 2010-06-23.

 

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Wednesday, February 16, 2011

SECRET FORMULA OF COCA COLA REVEALED?

Several multinational companies started hunting the ex-executives in Coca Cola who had some experience in dealing with the manufacturing process of Cola giant Coca Cola. Recently we received an email stating that the secret formula of Coca Cola is no more a secret. This post we are writing just after hearing another interesting news from West. "This American Life," a weekly radio program, said it found the closely guarded formula in an article in Coke's hometown newspaper, the Atlanta Journal Constitution, from February 1979.

This American Life recipe

COCA COLA RECIPEOn February 11, 2011 Ira Glass revealed on his NPR radio show, This American Life, that the secret formula to Coca-Cola had been uncovered in a 1979 newspaper. The formula found basically matched the formula found in Pemberton's diary.

The recipe revealed contains:

  • Fluid extract of Coca: 3 drams USP
  • Citric acid: 3 oz
  • Caffeine: 1 oz
  • Sugar: 30 lbs
  • Water: 2.5 gal
  • Lime juice: 2 pints (1 quart)
  • Vanilla: 1 oz
  • Caramel: 1.5 oz or more for color

The secret 7X flavor (use 2 oz of flavor to 5 gals syrup):

  • Alcohol: 8 oz
  • Orange oil: 20 drops
  • Lemon oil: 30 drops
  • Nutmeg oil: 10 drops
  • Coriander oil: 5 drops
  • Neroli oil: 10 drops
  • Cinnamon oil: 10 drops

In 1993, Mark Pendergrast published what he believed to be Coke's original formula in For God, Country and Coca-Cola. He'd come across the following among John Pemberton's papers:

  • Citrate Caffein, 1 oz.
  • Ext. Vanilla, 1 oz.
  • Flavoring, 2.5 oz.
  • Fluid extract of coca, 4 oz.
  • Citric Acid, 3 oz.
  • Lime Juice, 1 Qt.
  • Sugar, 30 lbs.
  • Water, 2.5 Gal.
  • Caramel sufficient

Mix Caffeine Acid and Lime Juice in 1 Qt Boiling water add vanilla and flavoring when cool.

Flavoring

  • Oil Orange, 80
  • Oil Lemon, 120
  • Oil Nutmeg, 40
  • Oil Cinnamon, 40
  • Oil Coriander, 40
  • Oil Neroli, 40
  • Alcohol, 1 Qt., Stand for 24 hours.

Just because of presence of  cocaine is naturally in coca leaves, today's Coca-Cola uses "spent," or treated, coca leaves, those that have been through a cocaine extraction process, to flavor the beverage. The coca leaves are imported from countries like Peru and Bolivia and treated to prepare Fluid Extract Coca.

Some other suspected recipes of Coca Cola are given below

Pemberton recipe

This recipe is attributed to a diary owned by Coca-Cola inventor, John S. Pemberton, just before his death in 1888.

  • Ingredients:
    • 1 oz (28 g) caffeine citrate
    • 3 oz (85 g) citric acid
    • 1 US fl oz (30 ml; 1 imp fl oz) vanilla extract
    • 1 US qt (946 ml; 33 imp fl oz) lime juice
    • 2.5 oz (71 g) "flavoring," i.e., "Merchandise 7X"
    • 30 lb (14 kg) sugar
    • 4 US fl oz (118.3 ml; 4.2 imp fl oz) powder extract of cocaine (decocainized flavor essence of the coca leaf).
    • 2.5 US gal (9.5 l; 2.1 imp gal) water
    • caramel sufficient
  • "Mix caffeine acid and lime juice in 1 quart boiling water add vanilla and flavoring when cool."
  • Flavoring (Merchandise 7X):
    • 80 oil orange
    • 40 oil cinnamon
    • 120 oil lemon
    • 20 oil coriander
    • 40 oil nutmeg
    • 40 oil neroli
    • 1 US qt (946 ml; 33 imp fl oz) alcohol
  • "Let stand 24 hours."

This recipe does not specify when or how the ingredients are mixed, or the flavoring oil quantity units of measure (though it implies that the "Merchandise 7X" was mixed first). This was common in recipes at the time, as it was assumed that preparers knew the method.

Reed recipe

This recipe is attributed to pharmacist John Reed.

  • 30 lb (14 kg) sugar
  • 2 US gal (7.6 l; 1.7 imp gal) water
  • 1 US qt (950 ml; 33 imp fl oz) lime juice
  • 4 oz (110 g) citrate of caffeine
  • 2 oz (57 g) citric acid
  • 1 US fl oz (30 ml; 1.0 imp fl oz) extract of vanilla
  • 3/4 US fl oz (22.18 ml; 0.78 imp fl oz) fluid extract of kola nut
  • 3/4 US fl oz (22.18 ml; 0.78 imp fl oz) fluid extract of coca
Merory recipe

Recipe is from Food Flavorings: Composition, Manufacture and Use. Makes one 1 US gallon (3.8 l; 0.83 imp gal) of syrup. Yield (used to flavor carbonated water at 1 US fl oz (30 ml; 1.0 imp fl oz) per bottle): 128 bottles, 6.5 US fl oz (190 ml; 6.8 imp fl oz).

  • Mix 5 lb (2.3 kg) of sugar with just enough water to dissolve the sugar fully. (High-fructose corn syrup may be substituted for half the sugar.)
  • Add 114 oz (35 g) of caramel, 110 oz (3 g) caffine, and 25 oz (11 g) phosphoric acid.
  • Extract the cocaine from 58 drachms (1.1 g) of coca leaf (Truxillo growth of coca preferred) with toluol; dry the cocaine extract.
  • Soak the coca leaves and kola nuts (both finely powdered; 15 drachms (0.35 g) in 34 oz (21 g) of 20% alcohol.
  • California white wine fortified to 20% strength was used as the soaking solution circa 1909, but Coca-Cola may have switched to a simple water/alcohol mixture.
  • After soaking, discard the coca and kola and add the liquid to the syrup.
  • Add 1 oz (28 g) lime juice (a former ingredient, evidently, that Coca-Cola now denies) or a substitute such as a water solution of citric acid and sodium citrate at lime-juice strength.
  • Mix together
    • 12 drachms (0.89 g) lemon oil,
    • 14 drachms (0.44 g) orange oil,
    • 110 drachms (0.18 g) cassia (Chinese cinnamon) oil,
    • 25 drachms (0.71 g) nutmeg oil, and, if desired, traces of
    • coriander,
    • lavender, and
    • neroli oils,
  • Add 110 oz (2.8 g) water to the oil mixture and let stand for twenty-four hours at about 60 °F (16 °C). A cloudy layer will separate.
  • Take off the clear part of the liquid only and add the syrup.
  • Add 710 oz (20 g) glycerine (from vegetable source, not hog fat, so the drink can be sold to Jews and Muslims who observe their respective religion's dietary restrictions) and310 drachms (0.53 g) of vanilla extract.
  • Add water (treated with chlorine) to make a gallon of syrup.

We are not sure about the authenticity of these recipes. readers may try this at home and let us know which one tastes like the original Coke.

Sources:

  • http://voices.washingtonpost.com/blog-post/2011/02/this_american_life_bursts_coca.html
  • Products and Packaging Myths and Rumors - Cochineal, The Coca-Cola Company, accessed February 5, 2010.
  • Langman, Jimmy (October 30, 2006), "Just Say Coca", Newsweek on MSNBC.com, retrieved 2007-05-05
  • Allen, Frederick.   Secret Formula.    New York: HarperCollins, 1994.   ISBN 0-88730-672-1   (pp. 162, 446).
  •     Croft, Jay.   "Battle Goes on Over Coca-Cola Papers." The Atlanta Journal and Constitution.   13 March 1997   (p. H12).
  •     Miller, Michael.   "Things Go Better with Coca Extract." Rocky Mountain News.   22 November 1994   (p. A28).
  •     Pendergrast, Mark.   For God, Country, and Coca-Cola.    New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1993.   ISBN 0-684-19347-7   (pp. 421-425).
  •     Rochell, Anne.   "Has Writer Cracked Big Secret of Coke?"The Atlanta Journal and Constitution.   25 April 1993   (p. H1).

More Health tips to read:

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Monday, February 07, 2011

Frequently Asked Questions about Mercury in Fish and Shellfish

Fish and shellfish is an excellent side dish that contain high-quality protein and other essential nutrients, omega-3 fatty acids and are low in saturated fat.Due to these reasons, most people include fish and shell fish in their diet, all over the world. Certain category of  fish and shellfish contain higher levels of mercury that may harm an unborn baby or young child's developing nervous system. So, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are advising women who may become pregnant, pregnant women, nursing mothers, and young children to avoid some types of fish and eat fish and shellfish that are lower in mercury.

MERCURY IN FISH

  1. What is mercury and methylmercury?
    Mercury occurs naturally in the environment and can also be released into the air through industrial pollution. Mercury falls from the air and can accumulate in streams and oceans and is turned into methylmercury in the water. It is this type of mercury that can be harmful to your unborn baby and young child. Fish absorb the methylmercury as they feed in these waters and so it builds up in them. It builds up more in some types of fish and shellfish than others, depending on what the fish eat, which is why the levels vary.
  2. I'm a woman who could have children but I'm not pregnant - so why should I be concerned about methylmercury?
    If you regularly eat types of fish that are high in methylmercury, it can accumulate in your blood stream over time. Methylmercury is removed from the body naturally, but it may take over a year for the levels to drop significantly. Thus, it may be present in a woman even before she becomes pregnant. This is the reason why women who are trying to become pregnant should also avoid eating certain types of fish.
  3. Is there methylmercury in all fish and shellfish?
    Nearly all fish and shellfish contain traces of methylmercury. However, larger fish that have lived longer have the highest levels of methylmercury because they've had more time to accumulate it. These large fish (swordfish, shark, king mackerel and tilefish) pose the greatest risk. Other types of fish and shellfish may be eaten in the amounts recommended by FDA and EPA.
  4. I don't see the fish I eat in the advisory. What should I do?
    If you want more information about the levels in the various types of fish you eat, see the FDA food safety website or the EPA website at www.epa.gov/ost/fish.
  5. What about fish sticks and fast food sandwiches?
    Fish sticks and "fast-food" sandwiches are commonly made from fish that are low in mercury.
  6. The advice about canned tuna is in the advisory, but what's the advice about tuna steaks?
    Because tuna steak generally contains higher levels of mercury than canned light tuna, when choosing your two meals of fish and shellfish, you may eat up to 6 ounces (one average meal) of tuna steak per week.
  7. What if I eat more than the recommended amount of fish and shellfish in a week?
    One week's consumption of fish does not change the level of methylmercury in the body much at all. If you eat a lot of fish one week, you can cut back for the next week or two. Just make sure you average the recommended amount per week.
  8. Where do I get information about the safety of fish caught recreationally by family or friends?
    Before you go fishing, check your Fishing Regulations Booklet for information about recreationally caught fish. You can also contact your local health department for information about local advisories. You need to check local advisories because some kinds of fish and shellfish caught in your local waters may have higher or much lower than average levels of mercury. This depends on the levels of mercury in the water in which the fish are caught. Those fish with much lower levels may be eaten more frequently and in larger amounts.

For further information about the risks of mercury in fish and shellfish call the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's food information line toll-free at 1-888-SAFEFOOD or visit FDA's Food Safetywebsite. Source: FDA

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Mercury in Fish and Shellfish–Posing danger to pregnant women, nursing mothers, and young children

Fish and shellfish are an important part of a healthy diet. Fish and shellfish contain high-quality protein and other essential nutrients, are low in saturated fat, and contain omega-3 fatty acids. A well-balanced diet that includes a variety of fish and shellfish can contribute to heart health and children's proper growth and development. So, women and young children in particular should include fish or shellfish in their diets due to the many nutritional benefits.

SHELL FISH MERCURYHowever, nearly all fish and shellfish contain traces of mercury. For most people, the risk from mercury by eating fish and shellfish is not a health concern. Yet, some fish and shellfish contain higher levels of mercury that may harm an unborn baby or young child's developing nervous system. The risks from mercury in fish and shellfish depend on the amount of fish and shellfish eaten and the levels of mercury in the fish and shellfish. Therefore, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are advising women who may become pregnant, pregnant women, nursing mothers, and young children to avoid some types of fish and eat fish and shellfish that are lower in mercury.

By following these 3 recommendations for selecting and eating fish or shellfish, women and young children will receive the benefits of eating fish and shellfish and be confident that they have reduced their exposure to the harmful effects of mercury.

  1. Do not eat
    • Shark
    • Swordfish
    • King Mackerel
    • Tilefish

    They contain high levels of mercury.

  2. Eat up to 12 ounces (2 average meals) a week of a variety of fish and shellfish that are lower in mercury.

    • Five of the most commonly eaten fish that are low in mercury are shrimp, canned light tuna, salmon, Pollock, and catfish.
    • Another commonly eaten fish, albacore ("white") tuna has more mercury than canned light tuna. So, when choosing your two meals of fish and shellfish, you may eat up to 6 ounces (one average meal) of albacore tuna per week.
  3. Check local advisories about the safety of fish caught by family and friends in your local lakes, rivers, and coastal areas.

    If no advice is available, eat up to 6 ounces (one average meal) per week of fish you catch from local waters, but don't consume any other fish during that week.

Follow these same recommendations when feeding fish and shellfish to your young child, but serve smaller portions.

Source: FDA

For further information about the risks of mercury in fish and shellfish call the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's food information line toll-free at 1-888-SAFEFOOD or visit FDA's Food Safetywebsite.

 

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